Ancient cities and buildings

India

In the second Millennium BC after the city’s Indo-Gangetic plain are in decline, highly developed and standardized art, the basis of which was a brick, gave way to the Vedic period with its nameless pastoral settlements, built of clay, cane, bambalacha and other species of trees growing in the valleys of the rivers Saraswati and Ganga. Although we do not have samples of structures of the Vedic period, it is possible to judge according to the works of Buddhist sculptors. They were often depicted some episodes of the life of the Buddha in the architectural masonry of this period.

Borobudur and Prambanan temples of Indonesia

Borobudur – Buddhist stupa and associated temple complex tradition of Mahayana Buddhism. It is the largest Buddhist monument on Earth. Borobudur is located on the island of Java in Indonesia Central Java province, 40 km Northwest of Yogyakarta. The name may derive from the Sanskrit “Vihara Buddha Ur”, which translates to “a Buddhist temple on the mountain”. Borobudur is built as a huge stupa, which is made in the shape of a giant mandala. The Foundation of the stupa square with a side of 118 m. At the stupa there are eight tiers, five lower – square, and top three – round. This mandala expresses the scheme of the universe according to Buddhist ideas. On the top tier is located 72 small stupas surrounding a large Central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped with lots of decorations. Inside stupas placed 504 Buddha statues and 1460 bas-reliefs on religious subjects. Stupa built of 2 million stone blocks. Until now, scientists can’t determine the exact date and the construction period of this temple. Hundreds of years Borobudur lay covered with volcanic ash and overgrown jungle. As this unique monument had been forgotten and abandoned – it is not yet clear. In the middle of the twentieth century, it has been suggested that after the eruption of Merapi disaster forced the residents to leave their land and seek other habitats. The eruption occurred at the beginning of the 1st Millennium.

Prambanan – a complex of early medieval Buddhist and Hindu temples, located in the Central part of Java island, 18 km East of Yogyakarta, on the southern slope of mount Merapi, near Borobudur stupas and the Royal Palace of Ratu Boko. Restored by Dutch scientists in the first half of the 20th century the Most popular among tourists is a Grand 47-meter temple Lara Jonggrang is the biggest in Indonesia, dedicated to Lord Shiva. In translation its name means “slender maiden” – so nicknamed the statue of the goddess Durga in the main sanctuary. Information about the time and circumstances of the construction Lara Jongrang scarce and contradictory. It is most likely that the temple was built in early X century by the ruler of Mataram named Dhaka. It consists of four tiers (perhaps by the number of castes) and is surrounded by four walls with as many gates.

Myanmar

Pagan (or Bagan) — the ancient capital of the eponymous Kingdom in present-day Myanmar. The city is located on a dry plateau along the West Bank of the Irrawaddy river, 145 km South-East of Mandalay, near the town of Chauk in Magwe district. Currently on the site of the ancient city is an archaeological zone with thousands of pagodas, temples, stupas, monasteries.

Build in Myanmar – the height of 56 meters, the domes are gilded.

Shwedagon pagoda — the 98 m. gilded stupa in Yangon, Myanmar. The most revered in Burma pagoda according to legend, contains the relics of four Buddhas.

Kailash and Nepal.

The Kailas mountain is like a pyramid and has a layered structure that is different from the usual surrounding mountains. Height of Kailash is still a controversial issue, such as the monks assert that the Kailas height of 6 m 666, scholars differ from 6668 to its height is 6714 meters, due to the method of measuring the heights of the mountains, in principle, the impossibility of the conquest of Kailash to get the accurate measurement. Besides the Himalayan mountains are considered young and their height increases by an average based chapping breed 0.5-0.6 cm per year. It’s not the highest mountain in the area, however, it differs from the other pyramidal shape with a snow cap and edges oriented almost exactly to the cardinal. On the South side there is a vertical crack, which is about in the center crossed by a horizontal.

Lhasa in Tibet.

Angkor Wat – Cambodia.

It covers an area of 900 hectares and as well as, Angkor Wat, surrounded by a moat. You can get inside the bridge, the banister of which is made in the form of a 9-headed serpent Naga.

ANKOR Wat has the shape of a three-step pyramid. Its walls are covered with intricate carvings. The most frequent figure here is the figure of an Apsara goddesses, celestial dancers.

Laos. Reclining Buddha.

Thailand.

Thailand Royal Palace and temple of the emerald Buddha

Japan.

Masaki Kimura discovered on the seabed of Japan ruins of the ancient city that belonged to another unknown civilization at a depth of 40 meters. According to geologists, the building disappeared under the water about 10 – 12 thousand years ago.

Peter.

The area of Petra occupies a large area. From the city center, where well-preserved ruins of numerous buildings, not a rock, but built in the traditional way, made of stone, it stretches for several kilometers. There is an assumption that it was originally a temple to the goddess ISIS. In any case, many features of the monument suggests that it could build a craftsmen familiar with the techniques of architecture. Peter c 7/07/2007 one of the seven wonders of the world. The capital of Edom, or the Idumeans, later the capital of the Nabataean Kingdom, the main city of the sons of Esau. The city is located on the territory of modern Jordan, at an altitude of 900 metres above sea level and 660 meters above the surrounding terrain, the arava valley, in the narrow Siq. The pass into the valley through the gorge, located in the North and in the South, whereas the East and West cliffs steeply cut short.

In the pictures the entrance to the temple you can see the striations reminiscent of track working equipment.

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