CYCLOPEAN MASONRY

CYCLOPEAN MASONRY — masonry with giant blocks of stone, characteristic of the architectural structures of antiquity. Under many later believed such buildings were created by the legendary Cyclops. Often kvadra stone no bond, and the stability of the entire structure is achieved only by the force of their gravity. One of the most famous examples of the so-called Lion gate at Mycenae, built in 14-13 centuries BC.

Barrel VAULT — a vault, having in transverse vertical section form of a semicircle, in the longitudinal — straight line, C. S. based on parallel supports (walls, columns, colonnade, arcade). C. S. originated in the deep of the trees to bear (IV — III Millennium B. C.) in Mesopotamia and Egypt Crossed C. C. form groin

The ENGRAVER’s (from zinc and Greek. grapho — write, draw) — the production of relief forms for relief printing from zinc by means of chemical and photos mechanical processes. For the engraving zinc drawing done on the Board acid-resistant paints, then unpainted parts of zinc deeply poisoned by the acids, while the graphic does not clearly and distinctly stand out on the plate, forming the printing plates With line etching, a drawing, a solution of asphalt on a plate of zinc or drawing with ink or chalk (the opposing acid) transferred with the glue-coated paper, soaking the paper attached to the face plate, the adhesive dissolves, the picture goes on the plate, removing the paper, baiting grams of zinc with acid in stages. The technique autotype cliche is made by using a grid-raster; the gradation of tone are created by a grid of dots of different sizes, the Term “TS” refers to the cliche of copper, brass, magnesium and aluminum alloys, plastics.

MAT — thick woven Mat of bast, straw, reed, cane with colorful pattern and tassels. Is the decoration of the floors, counters, walls in dwellings of many of the peoples of Africa, Oceania, South. Asia.

The CITADEL (it. citadella, letters. — town) — a powerful fortress, the inner strengthening of the castle, the last refuge of the defenders. Over time T. the main steel core of a fortified feudal city, served as its administrative and cultural center. In Russia Gypsies were called Detinec, chrome, 14 V. elk confirm the name of the Kremlin.

DADO (it. zoccolo) — the lower, usually somewhat protruding portion of the outer wall of a building, structure, monument, lying on the Foundation, is often processed profiles, rustication, is revetted with stone.

GROUND FLOOR (from it. zoccolo — cap) — the lower floor of the building, designed as a pillar, plinth. On the facade of the E. C. are usually absent vertical elements (columns, pilasters), wall C. E. treated the rust, emphasizing its strength. It forms one of the floors typical of the classical architecture of the threefold division of the facade.

COCCIN (Mong.), choking (Tibet. — field Assembly of those who grant refuge) in architecture Mongolia, rectangular in plan, the Cathedral Church of the collapsible design. In the paintings of Tibet and Mongolia (see Tank) image of a pyramidal schematic of the hierarchy of the Buddhist Pantheon, crowning the top of the stairs, the mountain or the tree and symbolizes the process of cognition.

TSUBA (Japanese) – in the decorative and applied art of Japan detail of the sword (Garda — protective metal plate that separates the blade from the handle) decorated with inlaid, engraved, and carved relief patterns. With the end of the kamakura era (12th — 14th centuries) with the approval of the cult of samurai valor and in the following centuries furnish TS becomes a special otrasly Japanese jewelry art associated with other forms of art — calligraphy and painting. Subjects and methods of execution of the decor TS are very diverse. 15 V. C. was decorated with inlaid with gold and, later, a combination of gold with applied hatch pattern. Very common was the method of plating (a thin plate of gold or silver driven through the terrain and seemed to merge with him). The most complex decorative technique C. — the combination of an openwork pattern with a relief; a part of the image were minted separately and then inserted in specially prepared nests. The seams are sealed so thoroughly that it was impossible to detect. The flowering of art TS in the context. 16 — early 17th century is associated with the names of a dynasty of masters Metada.

TSUKIYAMA (jap.) – Japanese art type of medieval garden, based on a combination of flat surfaces and hills.

TSUI (jap. — Shine of the world) – category medieval Japanese aesthetics. In contrast to TS Sabi — the beauty of bright, gaudy, superficial, not requiring penetration into its essence

CAITYA (SKT.) — Buddhist religious building, a temple, a chapel, carved into the rock; sometimes a separate building. H. the interior has an elongated shape, divided by two rows of columns on the Central, the spacious nave and two side intended to crawl around the stupa, located at the rounded wall, opposite the entrance. Vaulted ceilings, as a rule, reproduce the samples of the traditional wooden structures that are in stone are obtained solely decorative in nature. Massive stone columns are completed Including complex sculptured capitals. Decorated with sculptures the facade of the Hours cut in the upper part of a solid horseshoe-shaped aperture (Sunny window — caitya), illuminating the interior, in the bottom has a doorway. Painting, gilding, painting covered the walls and columns of H as well as the polished floor, feeling masked the severity rocky areas.

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