European city of the middle Ages
Lesson purpose: Acquaintance of students with features of art and architecture of medieval Europe.
Objectives of the lesson:
To introduce the concepts of “stained glass”, “Gothic”, “box-rose”, “portal”;
Shaping children’s ideas about the diversity of artistic cultures of the peoples of the earth.
To develop the ability to reason, to analyze; the ability to work together, keeping the spirit of co-creation;
To raise cognitive interest, interest in the subject.
Tutorial on fine art: A. L. Nemsky “Every nation – artist”,
– V. I. Kolyakin “Methods of studying collective creativity”, Vlados, 2002.
Equipment: PC, screen, projector, Board, textbook, “Every nation – artist”, visual AIDS on the subject, children’s past works.
1.Organizational moment. (2 – 3 min)
The message of the theme and goals of the lesson.
– The guys you love to travel? (Yes!).
Today the time machine will take us 700 years ago in medieval city.
(Slide 2). What would you like to know, once in a medieval city?
(About everything, about people, about architecture, etc.)
– Then listen and watch.
2.Explanation of new material. (15 min)
In front of you at the desks are dictionaries, in which during the lesson we will write down unfamiliar words. ( Architecture, Cathedral, Gothic, portal, window, rose, stained glass ).
(Slide 3) there was a time when all of Western Europe began to grow in the city. Each city needed protection turned into a real fortress, with towers and gates, which were closed for the night. “In pursuit of the verse, the word escaped, I to love to go medieval,” wrote théophile Gautier. Closely appressed to each other houses with high gabled roofs grew, forming a solid wall of narrow crooked streets.
What word in art called urban buildings, beautiful buildings? ( Architecture . Recorded in the dictionary)
Compared with the modern city, the population of the medieval town was small. Usually it does not exceed 5-6 thousand people, and was often less than 1-2 thousand. Only a few Western European cities such as London or Paris, numbered several tens of thousands of residents.
In crowded cities people wanted to avoid monotony. Everyone tried to build a house on his own. The richest structures faced the Central square.
What there was, that was the name of the people in the city centre? (Slide 4)
Originally the only public building in the city were the churches. The Cathedral is an architectural, ideological and even in a sense, the economic centre of the city. Molded around the artisan shops. His portal (entrance) tied to scientific and political discussions, but here during the holidays unfold theatrical spectacle… the Cathedral bell tower defines the city, and her alarm ringing at the wrong time is the Herald of disaster – fire, RAID the enemy, a sudden epidemic.
You see “Notre Dame de Paris”, in French “Notre Dame” Here he is, creating the impression of severe solemnity.
What is the name of the main urban architectural structure? ( Cathedral )
(Slide 5). The style in which they were built the cathedrals of the European middle Ages, was called “Gothic”. That word comes from the Germanic tribe is ready. “Gothic” is a name of style throughout this era.
(Slide 6). But this was the portal entrance to the temple, which leads to internal architectural magnificence of the Cathedral. (Portal).
In the XIII century Gothic architecture reached its height. The name “Gothic” is a conventional and strange. In Gothic churches, nothing is actually Gothic, barbarous, – the French are much more successful called the Gothic style “orignum”, that is, the Lancet.
(Slide 7). Lancet arch (arch) was a great engineering solution, enabling to alleviate the pressure of the arch and thereby reduce the massiveness of the walls. The building appears before the spectators as a naked frame with accentuated lines “edges”. Vertical orientation of the architecture emphasized height relatively light walls, the slender semi-columns, that supported the Lancet arch, towers and steeples and huge Windows. High arched openings between the main and side aisles to allow the air to flow freely from one room to another, giving the impression of organic unity and space.
The cathedrals built and decorated for many decades, and sometimes centuries. Their construction involved a lot of urban artisans, even entire generations of masons, carpenters, sculptors, glassmakers.
The Gothic Church is called a “stone book” of the middle Ages, telling the world about the earthly and the heavenly. Let’s take another look at Notre Dame and will reply to that most of all attracts the eye?
– Which element of the building we didn’t pay attention?
(Round window in the center).
(Slide 8). Yes. Properly, this element called “box – rose”, “Symphony of light, a poem in glass and stone”. Beautiful? (Window – rose)
This is a huge, round window, as in Gothic churches, there is also narrow and tall, with colored glass, giving an amazing effect lights its dense colors – red, blue, purple and yellow, many times reinforced by the rays of the sun.
And call this beauty of a stained-glass window from the Latin word “Vitrum” – glass. (Stained glass window). Stained glass Windows can be ornamental and pictorial, depicting religious and everyday scenes. Stained glass is an obligatory part of the temple interior. The most wonderful – in Saint-Chapelle in Paris includes 146 Windows 1359 a variety of subjects.
– Want to know what is “stained glass”? Mica bonded together with lead ridges. The colored glass of stained glass Windows, fancy preobrazhatsya sunlight, creating the illusion of real presence biblical and hagiographic characters. There was also a location for scenes of working life, for rulers, for fabulous animals. The Gothic Church contained in itself the whole world.
(Slide 9). In the middle ages, sculpture was inseparable from the architecture. Cathedrals were decorated inside and out by the hundreds, and even thousands of reliefs and statues depicting God and the virgin Mary, the apostles and saints, bishops and kings. For example, in the Cathedral in Chartres was up to 9 thousand statues, not counting the reliefs.
(Slide 10). Such were the Gothic cathedrals in the cities of Western Europe.
Guys, what do you think practical work will you today?
(Image of a Gothic Cathedral).
Tell me, does that sound like a Gothic Cathedral on the ancient Greek, which we studied in previous lessons?
(No, in the Gothic Cathedral, all the elements directed upwards, there are Lancet Windows, and towers and spires, stained glass window-rose).
3. Practical work (17 min)
The image of a Gothic Cathedral located vertically on a sheet of paper.
Exhibition of works. As you complete the work the students attach the pictures to the Board.
5. Summing up. (3 min)
– conclusion about the diversity of world cultures art:
Do you think the same artistic features of the world or all they different?