Features of the architecture of a Gothic Cathedral.

Features of the architecture of a Gothic Cathedral.

From the Romanesque Gothic architecture inherited the headship of the architecture in the system of the arts and traditional types of religious buildings. Special place in art was Gothic Cathedral – the highest example of synthesis of architecture, sculpture and painting . Unlike the Romanesque style with its round arches, massive walls and small Windows, typical of Gothic arches with a pointed top, a narrow and high towers and columns, the richly decorated facade with carved details (winery, tympanum, archivolt) and multicolor stained glass Lancet Windows. All the style elements that emphasize the vertical.

Incommensurable with the man the space of the Cathedral, verticalism its towers and arches, the subordination of sculpture to the rhythms of the dynamic architecture, multi-color glow of the stained glass had a strong emotional impact on believers. It, along with the divine service were held theological debates, played out the mystery, was the Assembly of citizens. The Cathedral was conceived a sort of vault of knowledge (mainly theological), the symbol of the Universe, and his artistic formation was expressed not only ideas of the medieval social hierarchy and authority of the divine force over man, but also the growing consciousness of citizens. A Grand Gothic cathedrals differed from monastic churches Romanesque style. They were roomy, tall, elegant. spectacularly decorated. Dynamism, lightness and charm of the cathedrals determines the nature of the urban landscape.

The main difference between Gothic Cathedral – firm frame in which the constructive role of cross-rib vaulted ceiling, the arch of Lancet shape, which determine largely the internal and external appearance of the Cathedral. The building structure consists of rectangular cells (travel) limited 4 the 4 pillars and arches, which along with the arches-ribs form the skeleton of the cross vault. The lateral thrust of the main nave vault is transmitted by means of the foot arches (flying buttresses) on the outer pillars, buttresses. Freed from the load of the wall between pillars erupt arched Windows.

Romanesque Church from the surface of the walls were clearly isolated from the surrounding space. In the Gothic cathedrals, on the contrary, given a sample of the complex interaction and interpenetration of internal space and external environment. This is facilitated by a huge window openings, thread-through tower tents, forest crowned with pinnacles of the buttresses. Was of great importance and carved stone ornaments: finials-finial; stone spikes that emerge like flowers and leaves, on the branches of the stone forest of buttresses, flying buttresses and spires of the towers.

After the Cathedral into the sky and city buildings. On the main square of the cities built hall with rich decorations, often with a tower (town hall in Saint-Quentin, 1351-1509). The locks were turned into magnificent palaces with rich interior (the complex of the papal Palace in Avignon), built mansions (“hotels”) of rich citizens.

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