GOTHIC, Gothic and neo-Gothic
The violla-Le-Duc (Viollet-le-Duc) eugène Emmanuel (27.1.1814, Paris, – 17.9.1879, Lausanne, Switzerland), French architect, historian and theorist of architecture. Restored a number of French Gothic cathedrals (including Notre Dame de Paris, 1845, together with J. B. Lasso), the fortifications of Carcassonne, the castle of Pierrefonds and others In historical and theoretical writings (“the Explanatory dictionary of French architecture”, 10 vols. 1854-68; “Conversations on architecture”, 2 vols. 1858-72, Rus. lane 1937-38; “Russian art”, 1877, eng. lane 1879) V. sought to identify General patterns of architecture (including the conditionality of the form design), the originality of its national schools, the nature of medieval art, the constructive achievements of Gothic architecture, the study of which stimulated the development of skeletal structures.
the romantic principle of comparing efforts in accordance with the plan. However, at first, immense thanks to the enthusiasm of the believers for whom the Cathedral was also a manifestation of local patriotism, money, gained a lot, and then happened everything.
This explains why very few churches are designed in the same style built at once. Add to this another thing. The construction costs exceeded the funds which could have one person, even the sovereign. Wanting to ensure the continued inflow of funds, in the XIII century the Pope demanded that the fourth part of the revenues of each Church was meant for the construction. But it were not too meticulously. And here Czech king Jan reports on the construction of churches the revenues from the Royal silver mines. Not far behind, and urban communes. In Orvieto in 1292 made a census of inhabitants and in accordance with their state appointed a tax for the construction of II Duomo. Also preserved is a very interesting roster of donors for the construction of Milan Cathedral, including all the professions and social groups, including prostitutes. Very often, the donation was received in kind; so, the Queen of Cyprus sacrificed one of the great Italian cathedrals, decorated with gold fabric. Fever donations sometimes leads to family conflicts. For example, one Italian requests to return the gold buttons which his wife had brought as a gift for construction. Near the churches are open large stores, where you can buy everything donated by believers, from jewellery to poultry.
Collectors of donations go to distant countries to get money for construction. The Cistercians came to the construction of the Sylvan Abbey, turn for help to the Emperor of Constantinople, king of Sicily and count of champagne. Parishioners also United into a brotherhood, the purpose of which is to provide financial assistance to the ongoing construction. The brotherhood were very different, but perhaps the most exotic can be considered a “fellowship of players in the balls” from Xanten — “confrerie des joueurs de boule”. In it was not the most recent people — the members of this fraternity were, and Bishop. It should not be overlooked and the proceeds from the sale of spiritual values. That is, indulgences. Collegiate Church of St Victor in Xanten in 1487 at their expense covered one third of the construction costs. However, the right to sell indulgences was given for nothing. In 1397 the Milanese has bought from the Pope the right to trade in indulgences for five hundred florins.
Donations, especially if it was produced far from the place of construction, was invariably accompanied by the importation of relics to each city where came the collectors, it was a great holiday. Very detailed miniatures represent such events: the street among the crowds of kneeling believers moving procession with the ark, which houses the relic. Patients raising their arms, mothers with children squeeze into the front rows to touch the miracle-working relics.
The Church protested against the cult of sacred subjects before it was to make fun of Boccaccio. The Lateran Council of 1216 was forbidden to worship the relics without special permission. And yet it is impossible not to marvel at the immense initiative and daring fundraisers. So, in 1112 year after the fire, which caused serious damage to the Cathedral in Laon, seven of the canons gather the surviving relics: a piece of shirt of the Mother of God, a piece of sponge, which gave on the cross of Christ, and the particle of the cross. After several processions in French towns, the pilgrims returned with a sum sufficient, as they considered, to complete the construction. Unfortunately, the collected money has quickly ended, and had to again go to the fundraiser. The story of it could become the canvas of a spectacular historical novel. There is sailing on the sea, and robbers, thieves, pirates, and a treacherous Flemish clothiers. After seven months of travel and adventures pious travellers safely returned to his hometown with the money that allowed less than a year to complete the construction of the Cathedral. But not always managed so well to solve the problem of balancing income and expenses. Reports on the construction often read melancholy statement: “Nothing is done. There is no money”.
Another serious problem for the builders of the cathedrals was the transportation of materials. The vehicle remained the same as in ancient times, i.e. waterways and carts, which are drawn by horses or mules. If the quarry was at a distance of more than ten kilometers from the construction site, as it were, for example, in Chartres, one team was taken for a day and a half thousands pounds of stone, that is about one cubic meter.
French proverb says: “the ruined Castle is a castle half built”. Many stones of Gothic cathedrals come from the walls and structures of the Roman Empire. To build a huge Church. Albena in Britain dismantled the remains of the ancient city Verulamio. Examples can be multiplied endlessly. Chronicles tell of the wonderful discoveries, as, for example, in PONTOISE, deposits of stone, which was enough for the construction of the Cathedral of Saint-Denis. But this happened not often. The Rhine, Rhone, Arno sailed boats with antique columns, capitals, blocks of white and pink marble. Proud and powerful Venice, sent his ships in search of building materials for the Basilica. Mark in Sicily, Athens, Constantinople, Asia Minor and even in Africa.
What was the cost of transportation? If the material were brought from places at a distance of several tens or more kilometers, the price was tripled, and even five times. In the quarries the Treasury unit stone paid one pound six shillings and eight pence. When he was on the construction of the Cathedral in Norwich, the price was four pounds, eight shillings and eight pence. It is estimated that the total cost of many of the cathedrals could be reduced in half, if not the difficulties of freight. So the destruction of ancient buildings was not blind vandalism, and the hard economic necessity. Very soon came to understand that the only effective possibility of reducing the cost of transportation is finishing of stone in the quarry to the state of finished product and delivery to the construction site already processed blocks. Masons and craftsmen begin to refer to the quarry where they work under the supervision of the architect. This practice became increasingly widespread, and in England have any workshops that supplied building stone-hewn, and even the finished sculpture.
Not to mention one of the original vehicle, not seen anywhere, ever, except for the Middle ages, namely the backs of the believers who voluntarily provided them to the delivery of construction materials. Before the pilgrims reach the famous Cathedral of Sant Iago (St. James) in Compostela, each of them in the town Tricastle received a portion of the limestone, which was supposed to convey to Castaneda, where there was a furnace. In an often quoted letter of Emona Abbot of Chartres (1145 year) describes how a crowd of women and men of all classes (which is critical of comments ATOR appears to be an exaggeration) pull carts “wine, wheat, stone, wood and everything required to build the Church and sustenance”. Thousands of people are in total silence. When he reached the goal, they sing hymns of thanksgiving and confession of sins.