The term was coined in 1849 by the English Explorer A. H. in the book Cyclops Christianus . and in 1867 formally adopted at the Congress in Paris . The term is not exhaustive, so the definition of megaliths and megalithic structures are subject to the rather vague group of buildings. In particular, the megaliths called the hewn stones of large dimensions including and is not used for the construction of tombs and monuments .
A separate group are megalithic structures, that is, the objects largely composed of megaliths. They are distributed worldwide. In Europe, for example, is the Stonehenge. facilities of Cretan-Mycenaean culture, or Egypt. In South America — Machu Picchu. Puma Punku. Ollantaitambo. Hacks. Sacsayhuaman. Of Tiwanaku .
Their common characteristic are blocks of stone weighing sometimes hundreds of tons. often transported from quarries located tens of kilometers sometimes with large differences in elevation relative to the site. The stones processed so that the junction between the blocks can not enter the shaving blade .
Typically megalithic structures would not serve as a housing. and from the period of construction to our days not reached any record of the technology and of construction. The lack of reliable written sources, and the fact that all these structures Continue reading
Lesson purpose: Acquaintance of students with features of art and architecture of medieval Europe.
Objectives of the lesson:
To introduce the concepts of “stained glass”, “Gothic”, “box-rose”, “portal”;
Shaping children’s ideas about the diversity of artistic cultures of the peoples of the earth.
To develop the ability to reason, to analyze; the ability to work together, keeping the spirit of co-creation;
To raise cognitive interest, interest in the subject.
Tutorial on fine art: A. L. Nemsky “Every nation – artist”,
– V. I. Kolyakin “Methods of studying collective creativity”, Vlados, 2002.
Equipment: PC, screen, projector, Board, textbook, “Every nation – artist”, visual AIDS on the subject, children’s past works.
1.Organizational moment. (2 – 3 min)
The message of the theme and goals of the lesson.
– The guys you love to travel? (Yes!).
Today the time machine will take us 700 years ago in medieval city.
(Slide 2). What would you like to know, once in a medieval city?
(About everything, about people, about architecture, etc.)
– Then listen and watch.
2.Explanation of new material. (15 min)
In front of you at the desks are dictionaries, in which during the lesson we will write down unfamiliar words. ( Architecture, Cathedral, Gothic, portal, window, rose, stained glass ).
(Slide Continue reading
Reims Cathedral is a masterpiece of French Gothic
In the heart of the province of France champagne is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture – Reims Cathedral ( Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Reims ).
According to the legend, on the eve of the baptism of Clovis was a miracle, from heaven descended dove, and brought in its beak a chrism for the anointing of the king. Clovis was the first king crowned in Reims. It was after this event began the tradition of the coronation of the kings of France in Reims Cathedral.
The history of the construction of the Cathedral
The history of the construction of the Cathedral has more than a century, it began in 817, but in 1210 the Cathedral was burnt down completely. The construction of the new building was started in g. and continued till 1481.
Builders, unlike the architects of Chartres Cathedral, is absolutely not considered as remnants of a Romanesque building. Thus, the new Cathedral is a holistic, built on a single building. Inscriptions destroyed in 1779 “labyrinth” of the floor, laid out around 1290, has preserved the names of the architects and give quite some information about the construction.
The history of the Cathedral in Reims is the history and several generations of architects, who erected the temple, according to the chronicler, “with great diligence and care”. Architects, artists and artisans, generation after generation worked on the construction of the Cathedral, created Continue reading