(from the Mega. and Greek líthos stone) – buildings made of large blocks of wild or roughly processed stone. These include Dolmens, Menhirs, Cromlechs, Stone boxes, covered galleries. M. widespread throughout the world except Australia, mainly in coastal areas. M. in Europe mostly date from the Eneolithic and bronze age (3-2 Millennium BC), with the exception of England, where M belong to the Neolithic period. The appointment of M. it is not always possible to install. Mostly they were used for burials or were connected with funerary cult. Apparently, M. community structure. Their construction was primitive technology huge challenge and required combining large masses of people.
Menhir (Bretons. menhir, men — stone and hir — long) simplest type of megalithic structures (consisting of a single block of stone, dug into the ground. M reach the height of 4-5 m or more (the largest M height 20 m weighs about 300 tons, is in France). Sometimes M. are long alleys or arranged in a ring. Apparently, M. had a religious significance. Most Meters in North-Western Europe, are also found in Asia and Africa. On the territory of the USSR, disseminated in some regions of Siberia and the Caucasus.
Dolmen Continue reading
Reims Cathedral is a masterpiece of French Gothic
In the heart of the province of France champagne is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture – Reims Cathedral ( Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Reims ).
According to the legend, on the eve of the baptism of Clovis was a miracle, from heaven descended dove, and brought in its beak a chrism for the anointing of the king. Clovis was the first king crowned in Reims. It was after this event began the tradition of the coronation of the kings of France in Reims Cathedral.
The history of the construction of the Cathedral
The history of the construction of the Cathedral has more than a century, it began in 817, but in 1210 the Cathedral was burnt down completely. The construction of the new building was started in g. and continued till 1481.
Builders, unlike the architects of Chartres Cathedral, is absolutely not considered as remnants of a Romanesque building. Thus, the new Cathedral is a holistic, built on a single building. Inscriptions destroyed in 1779 “labyrinth” of the floor, laid out around 1290, has preserved the names of the architects and give quite some information about the construction.
The history of the Cathedral in Reims is the history and several generations of architects, who erected the temple, according to the chronicler, “with great diligence and care”. Architects, artists and artisans, generation after generation worked on the construction of the Cathedral, created Continue reading