Mysterious Mexican pyramids of Teotihuacan
Mysterious Mexican pyramid of Teotihuacan
About the famous Egyptian pyramids know everything, and many there have already visited: close to them and even inside (especially in the last fifteen years, thanks to tours). But few people remember, or may not know that in addition to the Egyptian pyramids in the world still exist pyramids of ancient Aztec and Mayan tribes, located on the territory of modern Mexico.
Even in the II – I century BC in the Americas in the center of the territory of Mesoamerica, which later became Mexico, originated the ancient city of Teotihuacan, which is inhabited by different tribes, the largest of which were the Aztecs. The city had a strategic location in the valley, which gave access to an excellent system of lakes in the Valley of Mexico, alongside a valley of Puebla and had access to the coast of Veracruz. Initially, the city occupied an area of 6 square kilometers with a population of about 10 thousand people. In later centuries, the city grew to its peak in the IV-VI centuries BC had a population of about 125 thousand people, and to the adjacent settlement of nearly 200 thousand.
From an architectural point of view, the city was a grand monumental ensemble of temples, palaces, plazas, the porch, the dais, the wide streets and avenues, stone houses with high fences, walls of temples were decorated with murals. It is crowned by the creation of two giant pyramids – Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon. The central avenue of the city called the Street of the Dead. Located between the pyramid laid a giant stone square – a ceremony which took place at religious ceremonies. Part of the city was represented by fortifications, which the Spanish conquistadors gave the name of Ciutadella, the other part of the archaeologists called “Viking Group”, as it is with difficulty resisted the excavation.
The word Teotihuacan (Aztec language) means “the place where people turn into gods,” because there was a belief that this city is the cemetery of the Kings, who after his death turned into gods. Hence the name of the main street – Street of the Dead. According to mythology, Teotihuacan was the place where the gods were going to create the sun and moon. Two deities sat down burned himself, and then appeared in the sky the sun and moon. For them something for their burial and worship them, and were built two huge pyramids – Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon.
It should be noted that the Teotihuacan and the surrounding area at the time were the most outstanding cultural civilization in the region of Mesoamerica. The very appearance of the people, its existence and, finally, the unexpected outcome of the entire population of the city in the VII century remain an unsolved mystery to this day. We only know that when the captain Hernán Cortés, cleaving the azure waters of the Atlantic, landed with their Spanish thugs on the shores of Mexico (in the XV century) to capture new land, it’s been about 750 years since, the inhabitants of Teotihuacan ever left this city He never returned.
Pyramid of the Sun – the biggest building of the city. It occupies a volume of 1 million cubic meters, the height of the pyramid of 65 meters (half the Egyptian Pyramid of Cheops) has four sides, each with a length of 225 meters at the base. Warning, the reader! The sides of the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt are 230 meters at the base of each. Just think about it: almost identical on the perimeter! And as the ancient people at different ends of the earth without a word to the Gods are built similar structures, almost the same size? Whether it is a mystery. (For the record to say that mobile phones at the time were not. And maybe have?). The main facade of the pyramid of the Sun rotated by 15 degrees 30 minutes east of astronomical north. Recently, as a result of the excavations were found underground tunnels that led to the center of the base of the pyramid.
Before the main facade of the pyramid of the Sun stretched area width of 70 meters, connecting with a pyramid sweeping staircase. On the other three sides of the pyramid – the terrace width of 350 meters each. Just north of the Square of the Sun – a complex of buildings called the Sun Palace. Judging by the architectural grandeur and location, it is assumed that it was the residence of the high priest of the pyramid.
The second outstanding structure of Teotihuacan – Pyramid of the Moon. Pyramid was built a hundred years after the pyramid of the sun. It is smaller in size – the height of 46 meters, however, the tip is flush with the top of the pyramid of the Sun, because it was built on an earthen mound. On each side to attach four small pyramids. The face of the high platform, which is a broad staircase. The total volume of the pyramid of the moon about 380 thousand cubic meters. Before the pyramid is the most impressive architectural ensemble of Teotihuacan – Moon Area, thanks to an amazing symmetry of the arrangement of buildings and the use of space between them. On this square are the most luxurious ceremony and religious ritual. From north to south it is 204 square meters and a half, and from east to west 137 meters. In the center stands an altar in the shape of a quadrangle, with decorations on the sides.
As it became clear after the excavation, the city had a clear plan, as can be seen on the Street of the Dead, its buildings, open spaces, secondary streets, platforms and walls. Planning assumed a central axis and symmetrically arranged groups of buildings, as seen on the Square of the Moon. The whole city is divided into four zones, with the principal axes: one from north to south, passing, as already mentioned, at an angle of 15 degrees 30 minutes east of astronomical north, and another, more or less perpendicular to it (in the Street of the Dead) represented by two other streets crossing Ciutadella: Eastern Avenue and Western Avenue, plays an important role in the planning of the city. They had a width of 40 meters and a length of three and a half kilometers. The most amazing thing is that with respect to the main axis of the Street of the Dead, they created the angle is not 90 degrees and 91 degrees and 91.5 degrees one another. It is unclear why, but there is no doubt that these deviations were not accidental.
Another mystery is the distance between the centers of the city, which consistently present number of 57 meters, or a number multiplied by 57 meters. Thus, the distance between the center of the platform and the platform area of the Moon, located in front of the Pyramid of the Sun in the Street of the Dead, is 570 meters (10 x 57). Between the platform before the Pyramid of the Sun and a group of buildings facing south on the San Juan River, a distance of 14 x 57 meters. From the same platform to the center area of Ciutadella – 21 x 57 meters. Finally, the inner area Ciutadella, running along the streets of the Dead has a length of 399 meters (7 x 57), and the upper part of the platforms are 57 meters away from center to center.
It is interesting to note that the number of inhabitants of Teotihuacan counted not from the ceiling, though ZhEKov was not there, and no population census conducted. Just archeologists managed to dig not only magnificent buildings and palaces, but also houses, in which it was possible to count the number of bedrooms, on the basis that each bedroom was one to three beds. In addition to permanent residents, the city came many pilgrims as Teotihuacan represented while strong religious civilization of Mesoamerica. Even after the city was deserted, he continued to be a center for the worship of the gods of the Aztecs pilgrims. The level of development of the religious imagination and understanding of the universe can be seen in frescoes and wall paintings, transmit degree of reverence and faith of this mysterious people.