Old buildings in the world
Age structure of the population of the world
The human age is the period from his birth to a particular measured point in his life. Because at different stages of their life perform different economic, social and demographic features, in demography adopted different classifications (groups) ages – as more detailed and more generalized. The number of fractional classifications belongs, for example, the following
DYNAMICS OF AGE STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD
In fact, such a classification and is the basis for the allocation and calculation of human contingents that are related to preschool, school, marriage, recruiting, election, reservist, reproductive (all over the world women of this age are more than 1.5 billion), working age, pension and other ages. Of particular importance among these categories is the division of people into three groups: dorogobuzova (gorbachevo), working (working) and posleprodazhnogo (after their work) ages. The boundaries between them can be performed in different ways. For example, in Russia, persons working age includes men aged 16 to 59 and women aged 16 to 54 years (inclusive), and in most foreign countries consider able-bodied men and women aged from 16 to 65 years.
Accordingly to characterize the age structure of the population and the estimation of structural shifts in domestic demographics applied integrated division of all people into three age groups: children (0-14 years) adult (15-59) and elderly (60 years and older). In the international demographic statistics is usually applied gradation 0-14, 15-64, 65 years and older. It is clear that as changes in mode of reproduction of the population is changing and the equity ratio of the three specified age groups. This can be demonstrated on the example of data about the world, which reflect the gradual aging of the population (table. 45).
Since large regions of the modern world, as has been shown, are at different stages of the demographic transition, and varying modes of reproduction of the population, differences in age structure are evident in them very clearly (tab. 46).
AGE structure of the POPULATION of LARGE REGIONS of the WORLD IN the LATE 1990s
Without the CIS countries.
Despite all the differences in the indices of major world regions can be divided into two age structure of the population, corresponding to two types of its reproduction. The first type is characteristic of foreign Asia, Africa and Latin America (with the typical high rates of fertility and mortality and low life expectancy), has a very large share in the population of children and low proportion of elderly people. The second type is characteristic of countries with low fertility, low mortality and a large life expectancy – especially for foreign countries of Europe and North America, but to some extent also for the CIS, Australia and Oceania. The most characteristic features of this type of the age structure of the population – a smaller proportion of children and high percentage of elderly people.
Each of these types of the age structure of the population has its own advantages and disadvantages. Thus, in regions with prevalence of the first type of age structure of the population is a huge problem necessitates the training and recruitment of youth, whereas the issue of ensuring retirees is not sharp. In regions with a predominance of second type, on the contrary, increasingly there is a shortage of individuals of young ages and pension provision has long been one of the most important and challenging social problems. Economically developed Western countries already spend on pensions 1/10 of their GDP.
Of course, when analyzing the age structure of the population of individual countries reveals more diverse subtypes. Nevertheless, both the above main type example individual countries can be traced, perhaps, even more clearly (PL. 47).
In principle, nothing unexpected data table 48, do not contain. In her first column included 18 countries of Tropical Africa and 2 countries in South-West Asia, where there is a peak of a population explosion and demographic policy either does not hold, or just starting to exercise. In the second column you can see the countries of Europe and Japan, i.e. the States with diminished or at best simple reproduction of the population. It remains to add that for countries with the age structure of the population belonging to the second type, usually characterized by noticeable predominance of women in middle and older ages. This advantage may be a fraction of a percent, but sometimes up to 1-2 % .
TWENTY-THE “YOUNGEST” AND THE “OLDEST” countries in the WORLD IN 2005
The PA in the state of Israel.
These indicators can be added, the median age of the population, which is computed as the arithmetic average of the values of the ages of all people. According to calculations of the UN, the high average age (in parentheses) in 2000 were: Italy (40.2 years), Germany (39,7), Sweden (39,7), Greece (39,1), Finland (39,1), Belgium (39,0), Denmark (38,8), Croatia (38,5), Bulgaria (38.5 years). Accordingly, the countries with the youngest average age were identified as: Uganda (15,0 years), Nigeria (15.8 years), Yemen (15,9), Democratic Republic of the Congo (15,9), Somalia (16,0), Zambia (16,1), Angola (16,2), Burkina Faso (16.2 years).
Russia is also an example of a country which is characterized by the second type of age structure of the population: the proportion of children in its population is only 19 % , and the proportion of people over 60 years from 1959 to 1999 has increased from 9 to 18 % ; older people in rural areas is several percent higher than in the cities.
Graphic image characteristics of the population age structure is widely used age (age-sex) pyramid. She is a two-way directed graph with the number of people of each age and sex or their share in the population is represented by horizontal bands of equal scale. These stripes are arranged one above another in order of increasing values of age, usually from 0 to 100 years, left for men, right for women. Despite the diversity of such schemes, they can be reduced to three basic types in accordance with three modes of reproduction of the population (Fig. 41).