The Ancient Korsun
The ancient Korsun and Mykolayiv military Governor
Admiral Aleksey Samuilovich Greig, the chief commander of the black sea fleet and simultaneously military Governor of Sevastopol and Nikolaev from 1816 to 1833, by religion was Lutheran. He was the first child in the family of the famous Vice-Admiral Samuil Karlovich Greig (1736-1788), hero of the battle of Cesme, a native of Scotland, who took Russian citizenship. For exceptional services of his father at birth the baby’s godparents were Catherine II and count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov-Chesmensky. The boy was named Alexei in honor of count Orlov.
Now the center of the city of Nikolaev “decorates” the monument “to the leader of the proletariat”. Before the revolution, a magistrate of Nikolaev decided to convert Greig for his merits in the development of the city “eternal citizen”, and the townspeople in his honor put on the Cathedral square, which now “carries” the name of Lenin square, in 1873, the monument, designed by M. O. Mikeshin famous sculptor A. M. Opekushin. The monument has not survived, it was destroyed during the revolution, and a bronze bas-relief portrait of Admiral was stolen.
From 1788 to 1808 by Alex Greig served in the Russian Navy, starting his service of 13 years. Participated in anti-French the coalition, Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1808 years, gaining invaluable combat experience. This experience – quick and accurate decision making with maximum savings of human resources and military equipment – oddly, useful to him in civilian life.
In 1816, began a new era in the activities of Aleksey Samuilovich Greig, which lasted 18 years and has earned him the respect and love of the entire fleet. 2 March 1816 he was appointed commander of the black sea fleet and ports, General-Governor of Nikolaev and Sevastopol. By 1816, at the black sea fleet are almost no good ships and well trained sailors. With the appointment of young, energetic, educated and loving sea of Vice-Admiral Greig, the status of the black sea fleet quickly changed for the better. He started with a scientific organization and has established in the black sea Admiralty Department for the administrative part, dealing with correspondence, established Artillery control, improved depot of maps, giving it a printing press and engravers from among the sailors, introduced the posts of heads of departments, improved stationery case and made the translation of the archive of the black sea fleet from the capital in Nikolaev than reduced correspondence. In 1826 captain for the first time in Russia created the Navy headquarters for the organization of combat training and the development of plans of action in time of war. Greig has transformed all sectors of the fleet, was personally involved in the development of new drawings for the construction of ships. Young and capable naval officers Greig sends to England to study naval Affairs. It conducts examinations for all officers and employees of the black sea fleet itself is headed by the examination Committee of “the whole fleet began to learn.” In Nikolaev and Sevastopol were established Maritime library, the first in Russia. The period of construction of any ship Greig limited to two years, so that the wooden case didn’t start to rot already on the stocks. As a result the ships now were used until major repairs are not 5-6 years old, and 11-17. Greig introduced on ships, lightning rods, chain ropes, replaced the stone ballast of cast iron, brick galleys – iron. The cabins appeared portholes, lamps instead of tallow candles, in lanterns – glass instead of mica. On each deck of the ship Greig mounted guns of the same caliber that simplify the ammunition supply.
Admiral Aleksey Samuilovich Greig, a Scot by birth, was a true patriot of Russia. Knowing that the town became the site of the baptism of the Holy Apostolic Grand Duke Vladimir, and from there began the spread of Christianity in Russia, that the first Admiral had the idea of perpetuating the event. It was not an empty idea – on his initiative in Chersonesos in 1827, archaeological excavations were conducted under the direction of K. Kruse, who found the ruins of three ancient Christian basilicas, among them the remains christophobes in terms of the Church in the centre of the main square of the city, allowing Greig to submit a petition to the Tsar. According to the Church legends and historical evidences, the baptism of Grand Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich took place in 988 in the city of Khersones, or Korsun as it was called by the ancient Rusichi. The monk Nestor the Chronicler in the “Tale of bygone years” mentions the city collegiate Church: “in the midst of hail, where korsuntsi on bargaining”, which, as scientists assume, could be the most likely place is crucial for all Russia events.
Already in 1850, the petition of St. innocent, Archbishop of Kherson and Taurida, there was founded St. Vladimir’s abode. Back in 1859 from little chapel of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to Chersonese was transferred to a marble coffin in the form of the gospel a piece of the relics of Prince Vladimir. This Shrine after the construction of the Vladimir Cathedral was placed in the Lower Church next to the historic ruins of an ancient Basilica. August 23, 1861, after the Crimean war, took place ceremonial laying of the Cathedral in honor of equal to the apostles Prince, perfect in the presence of Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna. Right side chapel of the Cathedral was consecrated on July 12, 1892, in the name of St. Prince Alexander Nevsky, the left – in the name of the Holy Apostle Andrew the first-called. In the altar of the Upper Church there was a list of the wonderworking Korsun icon of the Mother of God, according to legend, carried by Prince Vladimir in the Chersonese. Only the Cathedral were transferred to the relics of the saints 115.
While in the position of commander of the black sea fleet until 1833 A. S. Greig has done a lot. In particular, in 1827 on his initiative in Nikolaev was built Russia’s largest Naval astronomical Observatory. For Mykolaiv in the city were built port facilities, the credit society, intensified Maritime trade. When Greig in Nikolaev there were Marine Boulevard, began work on the city lighting, construction of sidewalks, open male and female school, built an orphanage. The city was decorated with new buildings, rapidly turned green. Nikolaev Lutheran Church has also been erected by the indefatigable care of the Admiral, and there were serious personal component, where the Admiral had intended to marry a simple resident of the city of Nikolaev, Stalin Yulia Mikhailovna, in the absence of the pastor he was forced to marry in the Orthodox Church.
When in 1833, Greig moved to the capital, he handed over the fleet to his disciple rear Admiral M. P. Lazarev in a much better state than he took. August 3, 1833, the Admiral was appointed a member of the State Council. In this capacity, he worked hard, prepared the documents and acted on various matters, was Chairman of the commissions military and naval Affairs, laws and legislation, Economics, civil Affairs, headed the “Free economic society”, the Commission on shipbuilding, etc. In 1834 Greig, honorary member of Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1822), was elected Chairman of the Commission on the construction of Pulkovo Observatory. The world’s largest Observatory at Pulkovo heights 20 kilometers from St. Petersburg was solemnly opened on 7 (19) August, 1839. For his merits in the construction of the Greig was declared the highest gratitude. In 1843, Greig was awarded the highest award of the Russian Empire – the order of St. Andrew. The Observatory soon became astronomical capital of the world.
On the card of the Nikolaev area remained only one reminder about the Navy – the village of Greygovo zhovtnevogo of the area. Nikolaev streets are named after people, not only quite far from its history, and often significant in the history of the world a trail of blood – Karl Liebknecht, Mikhail Frunze, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels… the Name of Admiral Alexey Greig, the military Governor of Nikolaev, and excelled in knowledge of Maritime Affairs, and in the battles, and in scientific works and in the improvement of Nikolaev and Sevastopol, and the perpetuation of Russian naval and historical glory, half-forgotten today. Click on the Admiral – after all, this street remembers the steps of the great Admiral…
But the name of the naval commander remained on the map. Russian sailors in his honor called the Cape Greig in Bristol Bay of the Bering sea and Greig island in the Pacific ocean, in the archipelago of the Russians.
People arriving in the ancient Chersonese to venerate the memory of St. Prince Vladimir, sometimes you do not know that the restoration of this National reserve is largely the merit of Admiral Greig. A Scot by birth. Lutheran by faith. And a real patriot of the Russian land.