The architecture and sculpture of Crete

The architecture and sculpture of Crete

Aegean culture – historical community of the cultures of the peoples who inhabited from the beginning of the third Millennium BC the Aegean shores: the Balkans, the Peninsula of Asia Minor and adjacent Islands – the Cyclades, largest island in the Aegean sea – Crete. A great civilization that flourished in these places, died in the mid to late second Millennium BC, when the Greek civilization is still in its infancy. Greatest cities of the Aegean world – Tiryns, Mycenae, Knossos, Phaistos, finally, the legendary Troy so many times mentioned in Greek myths and legends, it seems that the radicals received a classical education, knows them all, or almost all, but in fact until the seventies of the last century Europeans did not know where exactly were these cities, and believed that the myths are wonderful cautionary tales with entertaining intrigue and deep philosophical meaning, an inexhaustible mine of subjects for all arts for all ages.

Only in the 70-ies of the nineteenth century an amazing person, an Amateur in archeology, but piously believed that Homer described the real course of events, the German Heinrich Schliemann, after a desperate attempt to find Homeric Troy, proved that Troy existed. In Turkey, on a hill, Hisarlik, guided only by the descriptions of Homer and other ancient authors, he found the ruins of the legendary city, who died in a fire. It was she, Troy, where the war over the beautiful Helen had so many Greek and Trojan heroes. This discovery became a sensation, caused enthusiasm among the lovers of antiquity and a flurry of indignation among professional archaeologists. Flushed with success, Schliemann went to Greece in search of legendary cities of Tiryns and Mycenae, where, according to Homer, are buried Greek military leaders who fought in the first ranks during the Trojan war. Mycenae was the city ruled by king Agamemnon, who led the campaign of the Greeks against the Trojans. The Greek traveler Pausanias in the second century BC Mycenae was described as: “still still remnants of Mycenae of the town wall and gate on which stand lions. There were underground buildings of Atreus and his sons kept their treasures and wealth. Here is the grave of Atreus, and the graves of those who with Agamemnon returned from Ilios and Ehisf, beloved wife of Agamemnon, Clytemnestra, killed at the feast”.

These words of Pausanias, and were the main leadership of Schliemann. He dug out the dome of the tomb, with many gold objects, the tomb of Atreus, the tomb of Agamemnon, with its famous Golden burial mask, the tomb of Clytemnestra and Egesta. Mycenaean tombs are quite interesting structures. This so-called tolouie tombs, round in shape, covered by a false vault. Sometimes they are also called dome tombs. Outside they are covered with an earthen embankment, and the inside covered with a sort of dome or vault, which it turns out is because every last layer of masonry slightly protrudes outside the previous and thus concentric rings of masonry are closed at the top. In the tomb of Agamemnon was 33 of those rings. Were at Mycenae and the tomb carved in the rock. Schliemann was sure that in five of these graves, where were found many Golden vessels, masks, bronze weapons, and other treasures were buried and the companions of Agamemnon, slain at a feast by Eisfom. Some scientists, however, believe that graves discovered by Schliemann, belong to an earlier period than the Trojan war.

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